One Excel function that I use quite a bit in my formulas is the **IF** function. The **IF** function is used to test a logical condition and produce two different results depending on whether the logical condition returns **TRUE** or **FALSE**.

Let’s use the mobile phone sales table below as an example. You can download the example file here .

Consider a scenario where you need to calculate the **Commission Fee** for each sales row, depending on where the sales was made (**Column D**). If the sales was made in the **USA**, the **Commission Fee** is 10%, otherwise the remaining locations will have **Commission Fee** of 5%.

The first formula that you need to enter on **Cell F2** is as shown below:

Formulabreakdown:

**=IF(**– The**“=”**indicates the beginning of a formula in the cell and**IF**is the excel function that we are using.**D2=”USA”**– Logical test that we perform (i.e. if data in column**D2**is**USA**).-
**E2*10%**– Result that will be returned by the formula if the initial logical test results in**TRUE**(i.e. value in column**D2**is**USA**). **E2*5%**– Result that will be returned by the formula if the initial logical test results in**FALSE**(i.e. value in column**D2**is**NOT****USA**).**)**– Closing bracket indicating the end of the formula.

Thenyou can copy down the formula from **CellF2** to the rest of the rows in **ColumnF** and it will calculate the **CommissionFee** for each line, either by 10% or 5% dependent on whether the **IF** logical test returns **TRUE** or **FALSE** on each row.

What if the rules were a bit more complicated where you need to test for more than one logical condition with different results being returned for each condition?

Excel has an answer to this! We can combine multiple **IF** functions within the same cell, which is sometimes known as a **Nested IF**.

Consider a similarscenario where the **Commissions** aredifferent for each **Sales Location** asbelow:

**USA**10%**Australia**5%**Singapore**2%

In **Cell F2** (which later will be copied to the rest of the rows in the same column F), enter the formula as follow:

Formulabreakdown:

**=IF(**– Beginning of the formula using an IF statement**D2=”USA”**– First logical test that we perform (i.e. if data in column**D2**is**USA**).-
**E2*10%**– Result that will be returned by the formula if the initial logical test results in**TRUE**(i.e. value in column**D2**is**USA**). **IF(D2=”Australia”,E2*5%,E2*2%)**– second Excel IF statement that will be assessed if the initial logical test resulted in**FALSE**(i.e. value in column D2 is**NOT****USA**). This is a similar syntax of “**IF Function with Single Condition”**discussed earlier in this article where if value on**Cell****D2**is**Australia**, the result of**E2*5%**will be returned. Otherwise, if the value is not**Australia**, the function will return result of**E2*2%.****)**– Closing bracket indicating the end of the formula for the first**IF**function.

As Excel will assess the formula from the left to the right, when a logical test is met (e.g. **D2=“USA”,** the function will stop and return the result, ignoring any further logical test after (e.g. **D2=“Australia”**.)

So if the first logical test returns **FALSE** (i.e. location is not **USA**), it will continue to assess the second logical test. If the second logical test returns **FALSE** as well (i.e. location is not **Australia**), we do not need to test further as we know the only possible value on **Cell D2** is **Singapore** hence it should return a result of **E2*2%**.

If you prefer for clarity, you can add the third logical test **IF(D2=”Singapore”, “value if TRUE” , “value if FALSE”)**. Therefore, the full extended formula is as shown below:

Asmentioned earlier, the above will return the same result as the initial formulathat we had.

- For every single
**IF(**function, there needs to be an opening and closing round bracket. When there are three**IF**functions as per one of the examples above, the formula will need three closing brackets**“)))”**, each marking the ending of a corresponding opening**IF(**statement. - If we do not specify the second outcome of the logical test (when the logical test resulted in
**FALSE**), the default value assigned by Excel will be the text**“FALSE”.**So formula**=IF(D2=”USA”,E2*10%)**will return the text**“FALSE”**if**D2**is not**“USA”**. - If you have several different logical tests each with its own different outcome, you can combine/nest the
**IF**function multiple times, one after another, similar to the example above.